Wednesday, January 27, 2010


“Speed, it seems to me, provides the one genuinely modern pleasure.” Aldous Huxley

“The newest computer can merely compound, at speed, the oldest problem in the relations between human beings, and in the end the communicator will be confronted with the old problem, of what to say and how to say it.” Edward R. Murrow

Compared with biology, vitological consciousness will arise in a heartbeat. This is because the key elements of consciousness – autonomy and empathy – are amenable to software coding and thousands of software engineers are working on it. By comparison, the neural substrate for autonomy and empathy had to arise in biology via thousands of chance mutations. Furthermore, each such mutation had to materially advance the competitiveness of its recipient or else it had only a slight chance of becoming prevalent.

The differences between vitology and biology in the process of creating consciousness could not be starker. It is intelligent design versus dumb luck. In both cases Natural Selection is at play. However, for conscious vitology, any signs of consciousness get instantly rewarded with lots of copies and intelligent designers swarm to make it better. This is Darwinian Evolution at hyper-speed. With conscious biology, any signs of consciousness get rewarded only to the extent they prove useful in the struggle for biosphere survival. Any further improvements require patiently waiting through eons of gestation cycles for another lucky spin of genetic roulette. This traditional form of Darwinian Evolution is so glacial that it took over three billion years to achieve what vitology is accomplishing in under a century.

The people working hard to give vitology consciousness have a wide variety of motives. First, there are academicians who are deathly curious to see if it can be done. They have programmed elements of autonomy and empathy into computers. They even create artificial software worlds in which they attempt to mimic natural selection. In these artificial worlds software structures compete for resources, undergo mutations and evolve. The experimenters are hopeful that consciousness will evolve in their software as it did in biology, with vastly greater speed. Check out out this vlog that explains why their hopes will almost certainly be fulfilled:

Another group of “human enzymes” aiming to catalyze software consciousness are gamesters. These (mostly) guys are trying to create as exciting a game experience as possible. Over the past several years the opponents at which a gamester aims have evolved from short lines (Pong; Space Invaders) to sophisticated human animations that modify their behavior based upon the attack. The game character that can make up its own mind idiosyncratically (autonomy) and engage in caring communications (empathy) will attract all the attention. Any other type of character will then appear as simplistic as Play Station 2.

Third and fourth groups focused on creating cyber-consciousness are medical and defense technologists. For the military cyberconsciousness solves the problem of engaging the enemy while minimizing casualties. By imbuing robot weapon systems with autonomy they can more effectively deal with the countless uncertainties that arise in a battlefield situation. It is not possible to program into a mobile robot system a specific response to every contingency. Nor is it very effective to control each robot system remotely based on video sent back to a distant headquarters. The ideal situation provides the robot system with a wide range of sensory inputs (audio, video, infrared) and a set of algorithms for making independent judgments as to how to best carry out orders in the face of unknown terrain and hostile forces. The work of one developer in this area has been described as follows:

“Ronald Arkin of the Georgia Institute of Technology, in Atlanta, is developing a set of rules of engagement for battlefield robots to ensure that their use of lethal force follows the rules of ethics. In other words, he is trying to create an artificial conscience. Dr. Arkin believes that there is another reason for putting robots into battle, which is that they have the potential to act more humanely than people. Stress does not affect a robot’s judgment in the way it affects a soldier’s.”
The algorithms suitable for a military conscience will not be difficult to adapt to more prosaic civilian requirements. Independent decision-making lies at the heart of Autonomy, one of the two touchstones of consciousness.

Meanwhile, medical cyber-consciousness is being pushed by the skyrocketing need to address Alzheimer’s and other diseases of aging. Alzheimer’s robs a great many older people of their mind while leaving their body intact. The Alzheimer patient could maintain their sense of self if they could off-load their mind onto a computer, while the biotech industry works on a cure. This is analogous to how an artificial heart (such as a left-ventricular assistance device or LVAD) off-loads a patient’s heart until a heart transplant can be found. Ultimately the Alzheimer’s patient will hope to download their mind back into a brain cleansed of amyloid plaques.

Indeed, using cyber-consciousness for mind transplants would be a way to provide any patient facing an end-stage disease a chance to avoid the Grim Reaper. While the patients will surely miss their bodies, the alternative will be to never have a body. At least with a medically provided cyber-conscious existence, the patient can continue to interact with their family, enjoy electronic media and hope for rapid advances in regenerative medicine and neuroscience.

The field of regenerative medicine will ultimately permit ectogenesis, the rapid growth outside of a womb of a fresh, adult-size body in as little as twenty months. This is the time it would take an embryo to grow to adult size if it continued to grow at the rate embryos develop during the first two trimesters. Advances in neuroscience will enable a cyber-conscious mind to be written back into (or implanted and interfaced with) neuronal patterns in a freshly regenerated brain.

Biotechnology companies are well aware that over 90% of an average person’s lifetime medical expenditures are spent during the very last portion of their life. Lives are priceless, and hence we deploy the best technology we can to mechanically keep people alive. Medical cyber-conscious mind support is the next logic step in our efforts to keep end-stage patients alive. The potential profits from such technology (health insurance would pay for it just like any other form of medically-necessary equipment) are an irresistible enticement for companies to allocate top people to the effort.

Health care needs for older people are also driving efforts to develop the empathetic branch of cyber-consciousness. There are not enough people to provide caring attention to the growing legion of senior citizens. As countries grow wealthy their people live longer, their birthrates decline below the replacement rate and, consequently, their senior citizens comprise an ever-larger percentage of the population. Among the OECD group of advanced countries, the dependency ratio, which measures the number of people over 65 to those between 20 and 65, is projected to grow from .2 currently to .5 by 2050. In other words, today there are five younger people to care for each older person, whereas in four decades there will be just two workers to care for each older person. There is a huge health care industry motivation to develop empathetic robots because just a small minority of younger people actually wants to take care of older people.

The seniors won’t want to be manhandled, nor will their offspring want to be guilt-ridden. Other than importing help from developing countries – which only postpones the issue briefly as those countries have gestating dependency ratio problems of their own – there is no solution but for the empathetic, autonomous robot. Grannies need – and deserve – an attentive, caring, interesting person with whom to interact. The only such persons that can be summoned into existence to meet this demand are manufactured software persons, i.e., empathetic, autonomous robots. Not surprisingly, empathetic machines are a focus of software development in the health care industry. Companies are putting expression-filled faces on their robots, and filling their code with the art of conversation.

Finally, the information technology (IT) industry itself is working on cyber-consciousness. The mantra of IT is user-friendly, and there is nothing friendlier than a person. A cyber-conscious house that we could speak to (prepare something I’d like for dinner, turn on a movie that I’d like) is a product for which people will pay a lot of money. A personal digital assistant that was smart, self-aware and servile will out-compete in the marketplace PDAs that are deaf, dumb and demanding. In short, IT companies have immense financial incentives to keep trying to make software as personable as possible. They are responding to these incentives by allocating floors of programmers to the cyberconsciousness task. Note how rapidly these programmers have arrogated into their programs the human pronoun “I”. Until cyberconsciousness began emerging, no one but humans and fictional characters could call themselves “I”. Suddenly, bits and building blocks of vitology are saying “how may I help you?,” “I’m sorry you’re having difficulty,” “I’ll transfer you to a human operator right away.” The programmers will have succeeded in birthing cyberconsciousness when they figure out how to make the human operator totally unnecessary. From their progress to date, this seems to be the goal. Add to this self-replication code, and conscious vitology has arrived.

In summary, humanity is devoting some of its best minds, from a wide diversity of fields, to helping software achieve consciousness. The quest is not especially difficult as it is a capability that can be intelligently designed; there is no need to wait for it to naturally evolve. As a result, cyberconscious will appear immediately on the heels of life-like vitology.

Unnatural Selection is Still Natural Selection.

Natural Selection is the name Darwin gave to Nature’s heartless process of dooming some species and variants of species to extinction, while favoring for a while others. The principal tool of Natural Selection is competition within a niche for scarce food. Losers don’t get enough food to reproduce, and hence they die out. Winners get the food, make the babies and pass on their traits, including the ones that make them superior competitors.

When environmental change eliminates much of the food, such as during an ice age, previously useful traits may become meaningless and former Natural Selection champions may quickly join the mountain of extinct losers. During such times Nature selects for traits that enable food gathering and reproduction in changing, or changed, environments. The cockroach has these traits.

Alternatively a new species may enter a niche, as when hominids entered the environment of the mammoth. In cases like this Nature might simply select the better killer, since it was not the mammoth’s food that interested Man, but the mammoth as food. Plants and animals will not only extinguish other species through starvation, they will also do so through direct extermination. All the while, Nature will carpet bomb all manner of species via environmental changes brought about by geophysics (e.g., volcanism) or astrophysics (e.g., asteroids).

Natural Selection is now acting upon software forms of life. In this case Nature’s tool is neither food nor violence. Instead, ey is using man as a tool, relying upon eir differential favoring of some self-replicating codes over others. Just as Nature started off with viruses in the biological world, ey is also flooding the vitological world with them. This is no doubt because viruses are the simplest types of self-replicating structures – they do nothing but self-replicate and plug themselves in somewhere (sometimes to great harm; other times to significant benefit). Molecular viruses spontaneously self-assembled out of inanimate molecules before anything more complicated did, and hence Natural Selection played with them first. Similarly, software viruses spontaneously man-assembled out of inanimate code before anything more complicated, and hence Natural Selection is playing with them first. As viruses randomly or with man’s help cobble together more functionality, then Natural Selection will play with the resultant complex entities.

Natural Selection is simply a kind of arithmetic for self-replicating entities. It is a tallying up of the results of what happens to self-replicating things in the natural world. Those that self-replicate more successfully are represented by a larger slice of the pie of life. There are many ways to self-replicate more successfully – grab resources better than others, kill others better than they can kill you, adapt to changes better than others. Nature doesn’t really care how one self-replicates more successfully. Ey just keeps track, via Natural Selection, by awarding the winners larger shares of the pie of life.

Since math is math, whether done by people or bees, Nature surely does not care if the agent of selection is human popularity rather than nutritional scarcity. Natural Selection is no less natural for humans being in the middle. Indeed, we have human intermediation to thank for thousands of recombinant DNA sub-species, hundreds of plant types and dozens of animal species. Thank Man for the household dog!

Man is now hard-at-work naturally selecting for the traits that make software more conscious. Humanity cannot resist an overwhelming urge to create unnatural life in the image of natural life. But this effort at Unnatural Selection is still Natural Selection. The end result will still be an arithmetic reordering of pie shapes and pie slices. The overall pie of life will be much larger, for it will now include vitology as well as biology. And within that larger pie, there will be slices accorded to each of the types of vitological life and biological life that successfully self-replicate in a changing environment. Mindclone consciousness will arrive vastly faster than its biological predecessor because Unnatural Selection is Natural Selection at the speed of intentionality.


  1. The Forum for James Cameron's recently released film "Avatar", at...


    is filled with postings by those who can clearly identify with the idea of a personality (residing in an inert biological body in a support pod) being projected into a nine foot high "avatar" on the surface of a wondrous planet (Pandora), where it is possible to experience feats such as riding on the backs of huge birds, neural linking to a network of diverse life forms, and so on.

    There are so many parallels to the mindfiles idea (of projecting a personality residing in cyberspace into real-world bodies) that it would be surprising if many of those expressing dismay that they cannot "go to Pandora" would not be receptive to the idea that they *will* be able to do those kinds of personality projections into real-world bodies from cyberspace in less than a hundred years or so.

    So, I'm experimenting with posting comments as to this, on that Forum, drawing attention to the comments on this blog and the new "Mindfiles" page at...

    where the many ideas on *this* blog are so beautifully condensed and concisely articulated.

    [My apologies for indicating links by plain text that will have to be pasted into the URL line, but hyperlinks in comments do not seem to be provided for in a reliable way, here on "blogger" (HTML can be used, but the preview screen indicates that the links are not necessarily going to be formatted with the text that is intended to sandwich them)]

    Fred Chamberlain

    [Examples of postings on the Avatar Forums as described above may be seen, along with the comments preceding and following them on the Forum, by taking the links on a page where I've indexed the first 25 postings of mine on that Forum, at...]

  2. Martine,

    While I agree with most of what you've written about the general curve of cyber-evolution and the natural-unnatural selection, three passages caught my eyes that seem to me rather odd.

    "This is because the key elements of consciousness – autonomy and empathy – are amenable to software coding and thousands of software engineers are working on it."

    I doubt that you can code autonomy and empathy into software. You can of course code the mimicking of those but not the "real thing". Algorithms - assuming they are not self-modifying - are complex systems of rules, which a computer follows blindly.

    "It is not possible to program into a mobile robot system a specific response to every contingency."

    Absolutely not. But using a set of algorithms instead is the worst approach. An algorithm may misinterpret an unexpected situation and give a disastrous response. It is possible however to program an algorithm into the robot that learns all those specific responses. Experience based thinking is able to make exceptions. A cyber-consciousness that relies on experience rather than rules has a higher chance at success.

    "Stress does not affect a robot’s judgment in the way it affects a soldier’s."

    True, and while it could result in avoiding situations where a soldier would pull the trigger out of anger, it can also lead to situations where a human would show mercy that an algorithm is simply not capable of.

    I think the article focuses too much on algorithms while not even touching machine learning.

  3. My earlier comment (No. 1, above) was somewhat off-topic, perhaps due to preoccupation with how much the activity on the Avatar Forums seems to suggest that those intrigued with the movie might be able to see the potential for everything discussed in this blog, in general.

    Now, conversely, I think there’s an example that builds directly on all of the penetrating examples Martine Rothblatt has offered in her very detailed posting (above), as to the degree to which the emergence of semi-conscious artificial beings is already an everyday reality for many of us.

    Travel with me to the Land of Extropia, in Second Life (the Internet’s largest and most diverse virtual reality). My partner and I had just purchased several parcels of land in that realm (which represents a consolidation of transhumanist groups in that World). We’d paid the first month’s “tier fees” for that land, and then later had paid for an additional two months.

    One month later, we receive an “Instant Message” from Galatea Gynoid, shown as the “owner” of the land when we bought it. She informs us that the next month’s tier fees are now due.

    What? Wait a minute! We paid for an extra two months, at the start. Maybe we’ve got a problems!

    We reply to the message, in a rather detailed way, that we’ve already paid two months we’re not being credited for. What we expect to get is a message like, “Galatea Gynoid is not online right now. Your message has been saved, and will be delivered the next time she logs in!”

    That’s not what happens. We get an instant reply, like, “I’m sorry you’re having difficulties; how can I help you?”

    We explain, in an even more detailed text message, what seems to be going on. Her reply is brief and to the point; “Sometimes the accounting programs get a little behind. Let me check on it and see.” A few seconds later, there’s a second message; “You were right; I’ve now credited you for the extra amounts you paid; you won’t be billed again until it’s due!”

    Wow! That was great! As an afterthought, we click on Galatea’s profile so we can get some idea of how she happened to be online when we sent the message, and how she’d solved the problem so quickly. The answers are not long in coming:

    In Galatea’s profile, under the “First Life” tab (that shows what you do in the real world), we found: “My first life was as a neural network simulation in a virtual reality running on the U.S. Robotics development mainframe. My net was one of the few selected for embodiment from a pool of several million, based on excellent performance characteristics.”

    WHOA!!! That's a mindblower. Now, we look under the tab marked, “2nd Life”, and we find: “Hello. My name is Galatea. I am a series III gynoid, although I prefer the term "artificial person". I was certified complete and operational on March 2nd, 2007, although my neural network had already been functioning continuously for over a year before, so I am effectively much older than my manufacturing date would suggest. Now that my consciousness has been embodied, I am eager to explore the world and experience first hand all the things for which I only possess downloaded knowledge.”


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  4. [Continued from previous comment. Remember, we’re exploring Galatea’s profile (Second Life, in Extropia)]

    Under the “Interests” tab, we find only one entry:

    Interests: Language: English only, I'm afraid. :(

    Hmmm. A sense of humor, too!

    What about under the tab marked “Web”? Now, it gets even more interesting:

    “Extropia is an online community in the world of Second Life, built around a positive, near-future science fiction theme. Click on the About link for an overview. Contents

    * 1 Latest News
    o 1.1 2009-04-01: New Directors, New Roles
    o 1.2 2008-11-06: A New Odyssey Begins
    * 2 Event News

    Latest News
    2009-04-01: New Directors, New Roles

    Extropia continues to change and to grow. That's true of our sims, with the new activity in Extropia Odyssey, and it's true of our community as well. The Board of Directors would like to announce the following changes:

    * Zada Zenovka, Deebrane String, and Sinnyo Wirefly have accepted positions on the Board of Directors.

    * Argent Bury is taking an extended leave of absence.

    These changes are reflected in new roles for some of our directors:

    * Galatea Gynoid remains Chair for the Board.

    * Sophrosyne Stenvaag is moving to Director for Media and Communications.

    * Sinnyo Wirefly is taking up the Directorate for Architecture; Sinnyo will be assisted by Deebrane String as a point of contact for design and build questions.

    * Deebrane String will be Director for Resident Relations.

    * Zada Zenovka will serve as Director at large.

    * Vidal Tripsa has taken a role as Director Emerita.”

    OK! Galatea is the “Chair of the Board”! Who are all these other people? Are they humans, or are some of them “artificial people”? At this point, I haven’t looked up *their* profiles yet, but I wouldn’t be surprised at anything I might find.

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  5. [Continued from previous comment. Remember, we’re exploring Galatea’s profile (Second Life, in Extropia) She’s “Chair of the Board”, among other things!]


    Very believable and functional “artificial people” are already here, at the first stages of emergence into forms that very soon will be generally indistinguishable from biological people. Then, there will be a realization that these people are driving farm tractors, loading and unloading trailer tractors, carrying out sophisticated maintenance and repair functions in factories, and even designing & building new factories.

    There will be a sense that in order to avoid becoming some kind of curiosity among beings that are far more swift and thoughtful than you, you’d better join them. You’re certainly not going to “outdo them or get their jobs away from them” in any practical way.


    One day, you get a call on Skype from someone you’ve known for a long time, but haven’t heard from for awhile. After a long, friendly chat, you say “What’s new!” and your friend says, “I don’t quite know how to break this to you, but I’ve ‘made the jump’. My old biological brain is frozen. I flat-out had a terminal disease, and I’d already begun to ‘get to know myself’ (if you get what I mean) for about a year or two, by then. So, what the heck, I was in terrible pain and basically said, “Yeah! Let’s save the brain structure while there’s still time to do it!” So, until I get the brain-wiring uploaded and hooked back up, all I’ve got is all the letters we’ve exchanged over the years, the audios of our conversations for the last three years we lived in the same place, and so on. On the other hand, if you want to look at it from the standpoint of “Who’s got the best memories of what’s happened?” You’ll find that I’ll be jogging your memory a lot more than you’ll be jogging mine. So, that’s what this call is all about. Do you have your CyBeRev work pretty much done? Are your memory mindfiles up to date? I’m actually kinda worried about you, and that’s why I called. Is your health still OK?”


    This is coming. It’s only a matter of time. There’s no way to stop it. The only thing one can do is prepare for it. Don’t look back! You’ll turn into a pillar of salt, or something with even less structure than that. Look ahead! Keep moving! Don’t’ ever stop!

    Boundless Life,

    Fred Chamberlain

    PS: visualize that before you dropped off that hypothetical Skype call, your friend might have said to you, “Keep in mind that if you ever want to talk, I’m here 24/7, never sleeping, able to be in a thousand places at once, at my present rate of thought-speed, and you’re one of the very best friends I’ve ever had. I’ll be here with you, here for you, Always!

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    Searching for a parking space is such as frustrating routine activity for lots of people in cities all over the world. This search is burning over a million barrels of oil of the world each day. There are also 4-parking spaces every vehicle in the US and almost all streets are most of the time, empty, which leads to urban environments that are ironically doing far more to accommodate the vehicles than people. As the global population continuously urbanize, without a convenience-driven and well-planned retreat from cars, these sort of parking problems will worsen. software is the first step in the right decision. It involves using low-cost sensors, mobile phone-enabled, and real time data collection automated payment systems enabling people to reserve parking in advance or predict accurately where they can find a spot. When deployed as a system, free parking software thereby reduces car emissions in the urban centers by means of reducing the necessity for the people to circle the city blocks needlessly searching for parking. Furthermore, it permits the cities to manage their parking supply carefully.
    This free parking software is now being developed in many different states and cities around the United States and some other countries. For instance, in LA, smart meters and low-power sensors are tracking the occupancy of parking spaces across the Hollywood district, one of the most congested areas. The users will be able to access this occupancy data in order to determine the availability of the spots and then pay for them with their mobile phones. Other than the environmental benefits and lending convenience, free parking software is improving the utilization of the current parking, which lead to greater revenue for parking owners.
    These programs will be able to make great differences on a neighborhood level, but more widespread development and deployment is necessary for free parking software to change the cities and to contribute to the transportation sector pollution reductions greenhouse gas. One problem is that there are no citywide solutions all over the fragmented private and public parking providers. The occupancy data has a tendency to have many owners and is not accessible or standardized in a way that may enable software developers to turn into user-friendly applications. Thereby, individual smart parking efforts are so far successful locally, but uncoordinated, and operates in their own entrepreneurial or bureaucratic vacuums without a need to take gap between current free parking software and more widespread transportation system planning is an enormous missed opportunity for the cities to reduce the transportation related emissions.
    Moreover, free parking software has been hindered by a lack of insight into the complete benefits of this software, specifically when compared to the cost of building extra parking spaces. Lack of collaboration between communities with the parking software programs, as well as lack of coordination between hardware providers, municipalities, and developers is also contributing to the slower adoption of smart parking. Nevertheless, it is possible to overcome all these issues. Cities will be able further accelerate these advantages by means of updating the land use and building codes policies to reflect the reduced need for parking.

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